Important facts about PTSD.
Post-traumatic stress disorder is an emotional illness, which occurs in result of a dramatic, life-threatening event. People with PTSD have to avoid places and other people or things, which may remind them of the traumatic event. This disorder often develops in military veterans and those, who have experienced a variety of stressful situations. PTSD can occur after the prolonged or short-term traumatic event or a number of problems, related to many aspects of emotional and social functioning, and occurs in approximately 7-8% of the people.
Here are some facts about PTSD:
- Clinical picture of PTSD has diverse manifestations. It includes the symptoms of dissociative, psychological and personality disorder. There are primary (obsessive-compulsive and anxious syndromes, derealization, depersonalization) and secondary syndromes of PTSD (phobic and depressive syndromes, somatization and paranoia).
- PTSD is a complex psychopathological disorder, which follows 3 stages. The first stage – is immediate response to a stress, the second – presents the formation of PTSD core symptoms (re-experience of the trauma, avoidance behavior, increased agitation) and the third stage – is the overlay of comorbid conditions.
- Secondary (comorbid) conditions of PTSD include: the affective mood disorders (depression), alcohol dependency, somatoform and phobic anxiety disorders.
- Posttraumatic personality changes in people, who suffer from alcohol dependence, are manifested in explosive outbursts, epileptic seizures and explosive personality changes, which occur in result of withdrawal syndrome. Acute alcohol intoxication may alleviate manifestations of re-experience and avoidance.
More facts about PTSD:
- Patients with hypochondria often take vegetative symptoms of PTSD, resulting in similar to the traumatic event situations, for manifestations of the physical disease. Negative thoughts about the physical illness in these patients are aggravated due to the frequent episodes of re-experience, so they suffer from flashbacks and circumscribed amnesia more often than other patients.
- The development of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder is provoked by the increased stress loads, as well as a combination of personal, sociodemographic, exogenous and somatogenic factors. At-risk individuals usually are sensitive people of feelings with high levels of trait anxiety.
- The levels of achievement motivation in people, suffering from PTSD, usually are going down along with aggravation of the disorder. At the same time, personal traits influence the course of chronic PTSD as well. In particular, the greatest number of introverts and the absence of extroverts are found among those, who suffer the severe course of chronic PTSD.
- There is a relationship between the course of PTSD and other negative social and psychological factors in the past of individual. These factors may include: the single parenting, family conflicts or divorce. An important role plays the indifference of parents, lack of emotional support and violence against a child.
- PTSD development also depends on the external risk factors, such as content, severity and duration of the traumatic event. The emphasis is made on duration of the traumatic event experiencing and its presence at the level of consciousness.
- Optimal treatment of PTSD includes psychotherapeutic measures, aimed at psychological interventions at the several levels: subpersonal, personal, interpersonal and scenary level. The long-term results of psychotherapy for PTSD (1-5 years) confirm the clinically stable results.