Signs and symptoms of anxiety
Anxiety is a form of mental disorder where a person may experience constant worry, restlessness, high blood pressure, tremors, sweating, digestive problems, heart rhythm abnormalities and many other symptoms. Quite often, anxiety is accompanied with a stress.
We should distinguish between physiological and pathological forms of anxiety. In the first case, the tension and doubts normally do not “cross the line” and usually disappear altogether with the solving of problems. In case of the pathological anxiety, signs and symptoms of anxiety do not disappear, but rather become aggravated, in addition, the feeling of complete helplessness, hopelessness and emotional exhaustion are added. Often the anxiety is accompanied with phobias, fears, panic attacks and can lead to depression, various neuroses and other mental problems.
The exact cause of the anxiety disorder has not yet been established. Some experts believe that anxiety is a result of the disturbance of function of some brain regions, while others suggest that it occurs in people, who regularly have to deal with stress and fatigue, or psychological trauma.
The development of anxiety is usually provoked by serious psychological trauma in the past, but may be a result of some specific disease.
It’s safe to say that nowadays most of people leading an active lifestyle and engaged in social activity, is subjected to anxiety. Therefore, the most relevant question at the psychologist or therapist is “What are most common signs and symptoms of anxiety” and “How to get rid of anxiety”.
Most common signs and symptoms of anxiety are:
- Fussiness and fear;
- Fear of mythical situations, which may occur (in patient’s opinion);
- Mental function decline, impaired concentration;
- Feeling of constant tension;
- Tearfulness, irritability, mood swings for no reason.
- Feeling of a lump in a throat, difficulty in swallowing;
- Sweating, sticky hands, hot flashes;
- Shortness of breath;
- Dizziness and blackouts;
- Rapid heartbeat;
- Pain around the navel, chest pain, nausea, diarrhea;
- Tension and pain in the muscles of back, neck, lower back;
- Insomnia, nightmares.
People experiencing anxiety, often suffer from phobias – fear of certain objects or situations, such as:
- Claustrophobia – the fear of being in a closed spaces (elevator, transport, locked room);
- Agoraphobia – the fear of being in wide open spaces, or in a crowd of people;
- Nozophobia – the fear of becoming ill;
- Social phobia – the fear of public speaking, eating in public places or being in a company of people;
- Acrophobia – the fear of heights;
- Herpetophobia – the fear of reptiles or snakes;
- Entomophobia – the fear of insects.
Also, anxiety may be identified by the presence of obsessive-compulsive syndrome – constantly emerging ideas and thoughts, that force a person to repeat some action, for example, the fear of flooding the house causes to come back several times a day and check if all the taps are securely shut off, or the fear of getting sick of the infectious disease often causes to wash hands too much.
The treatment of anxiety includes psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, which can help to reduce anxiety. The psychotherapy involves various techniques, which help people with anxiety disorder to properly assess the situation and learn how to relax during the anxiety attack (auto-suggestion, breathing exercises, developing a calmer attitude towards life in general). The pharmacotherapy may include taking drugs (both pharmaceutical such as modern tranquilizers, antipsychotics and antidepressants, as well as natural), that may affect the metabolism of the brain.